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On 12.2, ORA-603 ORA-20 is Raised Even When Maximum Number of Processes Has Not Exceeded

On, connecting to a new session may result in ORA-603, ORA-20 even when the PROCESSES resource limit has not been reached.
This document describes this new behavior on 12.2.

> sqlplus system/manager
SQL*Plus: Release Production on Fri Oct 20 01:15:50 2017
Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle. All rights reserved.
ORA-00603: ORACLE server session terminated by fatal error
ORA-00020: maximum number of processes () exceeded
Process ID: 0
Session ID: 0 Serial number: 0


Starting with, small number of processes are reserved for local SYSDBA user connection.
By default, this number is 2, and ORA-603, ORA-20 will be thrown when the number of processes generated after non-sysdba user's connection reaches PROCESSES - 2.

If it is necessary to revert back to pre-12.2 behavior, set hidden parameter _min_sys_process=0 and restart the database.
alter system set "_min_sys_process"=0 scope=spfile;
shutdown immediate;

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