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Sessions and Processes Parameters

Oracle has changed the way it derives sessions and processes parameters in database.

In 10g, oracle used to derive sessions parameter from processes parameter using following formula

(1.1 * PROCESSES) + 5

In 11g R1 onwards it changed to

(1.5 * PROCESSES) + 22

It has another rule though:

If we set lower value of sessions parameters than derived value, Oracle will automatically bump it to above derived value.
If we set higher value of sessions parameters than derived value, Oracle will consider our set value

We can see derived value (4500*1.5)+22=6776 is greater than set value of 5000 in spfile. So its taking derived value for this parameter

Lets change the value in spfile to 7000

Now you can see its taking the set value, because set value of more than derived value of 6776.

Undo Tablespace/Undo Management in Oracle

Oracle9i introduced undo.

What Is Undo and Why?

Oracle Database has a method of maintaining information that is used to rollback or undo the changes to the database. Oracle Database keeps records of actions of transactions, before they are committed and Oracle needs this information to rollback or undo the changes to the database. These records are called rollback or undo records.

These records are used to:
Rollback transactions - when a ROLLBACK statement is issued, undo records are used to undo changes that were made to the database by the uncommitted transaction.
Recover the database - during database recovery, undo records are used to undo any uncommitted changes applied from the redolog to the datafiles.

Provide read consistency - undo records provide read consistency by maintaining the before image of the data for users who are accessing the data at the same time that another user is changing it.
Analyze data as of an earlier point in time by using Flashback Query.

Recover from logical corruptions using Flashback features.

Until Oracle 8i, Oracle uses rollback segments to manage the undo data. Oracle9i introduced automatic undo management, which allows the dba to exert more control on how long undo information is retained, simplifies undo space management and also eliminates the complexity of managing rollback segments. Oracle strongly recommends that you use undo tablespace to manage undo rather than rollback segments.

Space for undo segments is dynamically allocated, consumed, freed, and reused — all under the control of Oracle Database, rather than by DBA.

From Oracle 9i, the rollback segments method is referred as "Manual Undo Management Mode" and the new undo tablespaces method as the "Automatic Undo Management Mode".

Although both rollback segments and undo tablespaces are supported, both modes cannot be used in the same database instance, although for migration purposes it is possible, for example, to create undo tablespaces in a database that is using rollback segments, or to drop rollback segments in a database that is using undo tablespaces. However, you must bounce the database in order to effect the switch to another method of managing undo.
System rollback segment exists in both the modes.
When operating in automatic undo management mode, any manual undo management SQL statements and initialization parameters are ignored and no error message will be issued e.g. ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT statements will be ignored.
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Automatic Undo Management

The following initialization parameter setting causes the STARTUP command to start an instance in automatic undo management mode:

The default value for this parameter is MANUAL i.e. manual undo management mode.


UNDO_TABLESPACE an optional dynamic parameter, can be changed online, specifying the name of an undo tablespace to use. An undo tablespace must be available, into which the database will store undo records. The default undo tablespace is created at database creation, or an undo tablespace can be created explicitly.

When the instance starts up, the database automatically selects for use the first available undo tablespace. If there is no undo tablespace available, the instance starts, but uses the SYSTEM rollback segment for undo. This is not recommended, and an alert message is written to the alert log file to warn that the system is running without an undo tablespace. ORA-01552 error is issued for any attempts to write non-SYSTEM related undo to the SYSTEM rollback segment.

If the database contains multiple undo tablespaces, you can optionally specify at startup that you want an Oracle Database instance to use a specific undo tablespace. This is done by setting the UNDO_TABLESPACE initialization parameter.

In this case, if you have not already created the undo tablespace, the STARTUP command will fail. The UNDO_TABLESPACE parameter can be used to assign a specific undo tablespace to an instance in an Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) environment.

To findout the undo tablespaces in database

SQL> select tablespace_name, contents from dba_tablespaces where contents = 'UNDO';

To findout the current undo tablespace

SQL> show parameter undo_tablespace
SQL> select VALUE from v$parameter where NAME='undo_tablespace';


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Committed undo information normally is lost when its undo space is overwritten by a newer transaction. However, for consistent read purposes, long-running queries sometimes require old undo information for undoing changes and producing older images of data blocks. The success of several Flashback features can also depend upon older undo information.

The default value for the UNDO_RETENTION parameter is 900. Retention is specified in units of seconds. This value specifies the amount of time, undo is kept in the tablespace. The system retains undo for at least the time specified in this parameter.

You can set the UNDO_RETENTION in the parameter file:


You can change the UNDO_RETENTION value at any time using:


The effect of the UNDO_RETENTION parameter is immediate, but it can only be honored if the current undo tablespace has enough space. If an active transaction requires undo space and the undo tablespace does not have available space, then the system starts reusing unexpired undo space (if retention is not guaranteed). This action can potentially cause some queries to fail with the ORA-01555 "snapshot too old" error message.

UNDO_RETENTION applies to both committed and uncommitted transactions since the introduction of flashback query feature in Oracle needs this information to create a read consistent copy of the data in the past.

Oracle Database 10g automatically tunes undo retention by collecting database use statistics and estimating undo capacity needs for the successful completion of the queries. You can set a low threshold value for the UNDO_RETENTION parameter so that the system retains the undo for at least the time specified in the parameter, provided that the current undo tablespace has enough space. Under space constraint conditions, the system may retain undo for a shorter duration than that specified by the low threshold value in order to allow DML operations to succeed.

The amount of time for which undo is retained for Oracle Database for the current undo tablespace can be obtained by querying the TUNED_UNDORETENTION column of the V$UNDOSTAT dynamic performance view.
SQL> select tuned_undoretention from v$undostat;

Automatic tuning of undo retention is not supported for LOBs. The RETENTION value for LOB columns is set to the value of the UNDO_RETENTION parameter.


In case your code has the alter transaction commands that perform manual undo management operations. Set this to true to suppress the errors generated when manual management SQL operations are issued in an automated management mode.

Retention Guarantee

Oracle Database 10g lets you guarantee undo retention. When you enable this option, the database never overwrites unexpired undo data i.e. undo data whose age is less than the undo retention period. This option is disabled by default, which means that the database can overwrite the unexpired undo data in order to avoid failure of DML operations if there is not enough free space left in the undo tablespace.

You enable the guarantee option by specifying the RETENTION GUARANTEE clause for the undo tablespace when it is created by either the CREATE DATABASE or CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE statement or you can later specify this clause in an ALTER TABLESPACE statement. You do not guarantee that unexpired undo is preserved if you specify the RETENTION NOGUARANTEE clause.

In order to guarantee the success of queries even at the price of compromising the success of DML operations, you can enable retention guarantee. This option must be used with caution, because it can cause DML operations to fail if the undo tablespace is not big enough. However, with proper settings, long-running queries can complete without risk of receiving the ORA-01555 "snapshot too old" error message, and you can guarantee a time window in which the execution of Flashback features will succeed.

From 10g, you can use the DBA_TABLESPACES view to determine the RETENTION setting for the undo tablespace. A column named RETENTION will contain a value on GUARANTEE, NOGUARANTEE, or NOT APPLY (used for tablespaces other than the undo tablespace).

A typical use of the guarantee option is when you want to ensure deterministic and predictable behavior of Flashback Query by guaranteeing the availability of the required undo data.

Size of Undo Tablespace

You can size the undo tablespace appropriately either by using automatic extension of the undo tablespace or by manually estimating the space.

Oracle Database supports automatic extension of the undo tablespace to facilitate capacity planning of the undo tablespace in the production environment. When the system is first running in the production environment, you may be unsure of the space requirements of the undo tablespace. In this case, you can enable automatic extension for datafiles of the undo tablespace so that they automatically increase in size when more space is needed. By combining automatic extension of the undo tablespace with automatically tuned undo retention, you can ensure that long-running queries will succeed by guaranteeing the undo required for such queries.

After the system has stabilized and you are more familiar with undo space requirements, Oracle recommends that you set the maximum size of the tablespace to be slightly (10%) more than the current size of the undo tablespace.

If you have decided on a fixed-size undo tablespace, the Undo Advisor can help us estimate needed capacity, and you can then calculate the amount of retention your system will need. You can access the Undo Advisor through Enterprise Manager or through the DBMS_ADVISOR package.

The Undo Advisor relies for its analysis on data collected in the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR). An adjustment to the collection interval and retention period for AWR statistics can affect the precision and the type of recommendations the advisor produces.

Undo Advisor

Oracle Database provides an Undo Advisor that provides advice on and helps automate the establishment of your undo environment. You activate the Undo Advisor by creating an undo advisor task through the advisor framework. The following example creates an undo advisor task to evaluate the undo tablespace. The name of the advisor is 'Undo Advisor'. The analysis is based on AWR snapshots, which you must specify by setting parameters START_SNAPSHOT and END_SNAPSHOT.

In the following example, the START_SNAPSHOT is "1" and END_SNAPSHOT is "2".

 tid NUMBER;
 tname VARCHAR2(30);
 oid NUMBER;
 DBMS_ADVISOR.CREATE_TASK('Undo Advisor', tid, tname, 'Undo Advisor Task');
 DBMS_ADVISOR.CREATE_OBJECT(tname,'UNDO_TBS',null, null, null, 'null', oid);

Once you have created the advisor task, you can view the output and recommendations in the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) in Enterprise Manager. This information is also available in the DBA_ADVISOR_* data dictionary views.

Calculating space requirements for Undo tablespace
You can calculate space requirements manually using the following formula:

Undo Space = UNDO_RETENTION in seconds * undo blocks for each second + overhead

* Undo Space is the number of undo blocks
* overhead is the small overhead for metadata and based on extent and file size (DB_BLOCK_SIZE)

As an example, if UNDO_RETENTION is set to 2 hours, and the transaction rate (UPS) is 200 undo blocks for each second, with a 4K block size, the required undo space is computed as follows:
(2 * 3600 * 200 * 4K) = 5.8GBs

Such computation can be performed by using information in the V$UNDOSTAT view. In the steady state, you can query the view to obtain the transaction rate. The overhead figure can also be obtained from the view.

Managing Undo Tablespaces
Creating Undo Tablespace
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There are two methods of creating an undo tablespace. The first method creates the undo tablespace when the CREATE DATABASE statement is issued. This occurs when you are creating a new database, and the instance is started in automatic undo management mode (UNDO_MANAGEMENT = AUTO). The second method is used with an existing database. It uses the CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE statement.

You cannot create database objects in an undo tablespace. It is reserved for system-managed undo data.

Oracle Database enables you to create a single-file undo tablespace.

The following statement illustrates using the UNDO TABLESPACE clause in a CREATE DATABASE statement. The undo tablespace is named undotbs_01 and one datafile, is allocated for it.


If the undo tablespace cannot be created successfully during CREATE DATABASE, the entire operation fails.

The CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE statement is the same as the CREATE TABLESPACE statement, but the UNDO keyword is specified. The database determines most of the attributes of the undo tablespace, but you can specify the DATAFILE clause.

This example creates the undotbs_02 undo tablespace:


You can create more than one undo tablespace, but only one of them can be active at any one time.

Altering Undo Tablespace

Undo tablespaces are altered using the ALTER TABLESPACE statement. However, since most aspects of undo tablespaces are system managed, you need only be concerned with the following actions:

Adding datafile


Renaming datafile

SQL> ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE 'old_full_path' TO 'new_full_path';

Resizing datafile

SQL> ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 'data_file_name|data_file_number' RESIZE nK|M|G|T|P|E;
when resizing the undo tablespace you may encounter ORA-03297 error: file contains used data beyond the requested RESIZE value. This means that some undo information stills stored above the datafile size we want to set. We can check the most high used block to check the minimum size that we can resize a particular datafile, by querying the dba_free_space view.
Another way to set undo tablespace to the size that we want is, to create another undo tablespace, set it the default one, take offline the old and then just drop the big old tablespace.

Making datafile online or offline

SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE undotbs offline;
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE undotbs online;

Beginning or ending an open backup on datafile

Enabling and disabling undo retention guarantee
These are also the only attributes you are permitted to alter.
If an undo tablespace runs out of space, or you want to prevent it from doing so, you can add more files to it or resize existing datafiles.

Dropping Undo Tablespace

Use the DROP TABLESPACE statement to drop an undo tablespace.

An undo tablespace can only be dropped if it is not currently used by any instance. If the undo tablespace contains any outstanding transactions (e.g. a transaction died but has not yet been recovered), the DROP TABLESPACE statement fails. However, since DROP TABLESPACE drops an undo tablespace even if it contains unexpired undo information (within retention period), you must be careful not to drop an undo tablespace if undo information is needed by some existing queries.

DROP TABLESPACE for undo tablespaces behaves like DROP TABLESPACE ... INCLUDING CONTENTS. All contents of the undo tablespace are removed.

Switching Undo Tablespaces

You can switch from using one undo tablespace to another. Because the UNDO_TABLESPACE initialization parameter is a dynamic parameter, the ALTER SYSTEM SET statement can be used to assign a new undo tablespace.


Assuming undotbs_01 is the current undo tablespace, after this command successfully executes, the instance uses undotbs_02 in place of undotbs_01 as its undo tablespace.

If any of the following conditions exist for the tablespace being switched to, an error is reported and no switching occurs:

The tablespace does not exist
The tablespace is not an undo tablespace
The tablespace is already being used by another instance (in RAC environment)
The database is online while the switch operation is performed, and user transactions can be executed while this command is being executed. When the switch operation completes successfully, all transactions started after the switch operation began are assigned to transaction tables in the new undo tablespace.

The switch operation does not wait for transactions in the old undo tablespace to commit. If there are any pending transactions in the old undo tablespace, the old undo tablespace enters into a PENDING OFFLINE mode. In this mode, existing transactions can continue to execute, but undo records for new user transactions cannot be stored in this undo tablespace.

An undo tablespace can exist in this PENDING OFFLINE mode, even after the switch operation completes successfully. A PENDING OFFLINE undo tablespace cannot be used by another instance, nor can it be dropped. Eventually, after all active transactions have committed, the undo tablespace automatically goes from the PENDING OFFLINE mode to the OFFLINE mode. From then on, the undo tablespace is available for other instances (in an RAC environment).

If the parameter value for UNDO TABLESPACE is set to '' (two single quotes), then the current undo tablespace is switched out and the next available undo tablespace is switched in. Use this statement with care, because if there is no undo tablespace available, the SYSTEM rollback segment is used. This causes ORA-01552 error to be issued for any attempts to write non-SYSTEM related undo to the SYSTEM rollback segment.

The following example unassigns the current undo tablespace:


Establishing User Quotas for Undo Space
The Oracle Database Resource Manager can be used to establish user quotas for undo space. The Database Resource Manager directive UNDO_POOL allows DBAs to limit the amount of undo space consumed by a group of users (resource consumer group).

You can specify an undo pool for each consumer group. An undo pool controls the amount of total undo that can be generated by a consumer group. When the total undo generated by a consumer group exceeds it's undo limit, the current UPDATE transaction generating the redo is terminated. No other members of the consumer group can perform further updates until undo space is freed from the pool.

When no UNDO_POOL directive is explicitly defined, users are allowed unlimited undo space.

Monitoring Undo Tablespaces

Oracle Database also provides proactive help in managing tablespace disk space use by alerting you when tablespaces run low on available space.

In addition to the proactive undo space alerts, Oracle Database also provides alerts if your system has long-running queries that cause SNAPSHOT TOO OLD errors. To prevent excessive alerts, the long query alert is issued at most once every 24 hours. When the alert is generated, you can check the Undo Advisor Page of Enterprise Manager to get more information about the undo tablespace.

The following dynamic performance views are useful for obtaining space information about the undo tablespace:

View Description  
V$UNDOSTAT Contains statistics for monitoring and tuning undo space. Use this view to help estimate the amount of undo space required for the current workload. Oracle uses this view information to tune undo usage in the system.
V$ROLLSTAT For automatic undo management mode, information reflects behavior of the undo segments in the undo tablespace.
V$TRANSACTION Contains undo segment information.
DBA_UNDO_EXTENTS Shows the status and size of each extent in the undo tablespace.
WRH$_UNDOSTAT Contains statistical snapshots of V$UNDOSTAT information.
WRH$_ROLLSTAT Contains statistical snapshots of V$ROLLSTAT information.

To findout the undo segments in the database.
SQL> select segment_name, tablespace_name from dba_rollback_segs;

The V$UNDOSTAT view is useful for monitoring the effects of transaction execution on undo space in the current instance. Statistics are available for undo space consumption, transaction concurrency, the tuning of undo retention, and the length and SQL ID of long-running queries in the instance. This view contains information that spans over a 24 hour period and each row in this view contains data for a 10 minute interval specified by the BEGIN_TIME and END_TIME.

Each row in the view contains statistics collected in the instance for a 10minute interval. The rows are in descending order by the BEGIN_TIME column value. Each row belongs to the time interval marked by (BEGIN_TIME, END_TIME). Each column represents the data collected for the particular statistic in that time interval. The first row of the view contains statistics for the (partial) current time period. The view contains a total of 1008 rows, spanning a 7 day cycle.

Flashback Features
Oracle Database includes several features that are based upon undo information and that allow administrators and users to access database information from a previous point in time. These features are part of the overall flashback strategy incorporated into the database and include:
Flashback Query
Flashback Versions Query
Flashback Transaction Query
Flashback Table
Flashback Database
The retention period for undo information is an important factor for the successful execution of flashback features. It determines how far back in time a database version can be established.

We must choose an undo retention interval that is long enough to enable users to construct a snapshot of the database for the oldest version of the database that they are interested in, e.g. if an application requires that a version of the database be available reflecting its content 12 hours previously, then UNDO_RETENTION must be set to 43200.

You might also want to guarantee that unexpired undo is not overwritten by specifying the RETENTION GUARANTEE clause for the undo tablespace.

Migration to Automatic Undo Management
If you are still using rollback segments to manage undo space, Oracle strongly recommends that you migrate your database to automatic undo management. From 10g, Oracle Database provides a function that provides information on how to size your new undo tablespace based on the configuration and usage of the rollback segments in your system. DBA privileges are required to execute this function:

set serveroutput on
 utbsize_in_MB NUMBER;

The function returns the undo tablespace size in MBs.

Best Practices for Undo Tablespace/Undo Management in Oracle
This following list of recommendations will help you manage your undo space to best advantage.
You need not set a value for the UNDO_RETENTION parameter unless your system has flashback or LOB retention requirements.
Allow 10 to 20% extra space in your undo tablespace to provide for some fluctuation in your workload.
Set the warning and critical alert thresholds for the undo tablespace alert properly.
To tune SQL queries or to check on runaway queries, use the value of the SQLID column provided in the long query or in the V$UNDOSTAT or WRH$_UNDOSTAT views to retrieve SQL text and other details on the SQL from V$SQL view.

Switching Undo Tablespaces
You can switch from using one undo tablespace to another. Because the UNDO_TABLESPACE initialization parameter is a dynamic parameter, the ALTER SYSTEM SET statement can be used to assign a new undo tablespace.

The following statement switches to a new undo tablespace:


Viewing Information about Undo Tablespace
To view statistics for tuning undo tablespace query the following dictionary

SQL>select * from v$undostat;

To see how many active Transactions are there and to see undo segment information give the following command

SQL>select * from v$transaction;

To see the sizes of extents in the undo tablespace give the following query

SQL>select * from DBA_UNDO_EXTENTS;

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